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What is a Datatype?

Datatypes are memory element that holds some particular data defined/entered by the User.

The need for different datatypes is to ensure the efficiency of memory usage with respect to the data to be stored.

For example, for storing character elements character (not a keyword) datatypes can be used and for integers, their respective datatypes are used.

There are 5 major categories of data types that can be used to define the type of input.

Datatype From To
bigint -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
int -2,147,483,648 2,147,483,647
smallint -32.768 32,767
tinyint 0 255
bit 0 1
decimal -10^38+1 10^38-1
numeric -10^38+1 10^38-1
money -922,337,203,685,477.5808 922,337,203,685,477.5807
smallmoney -214,748.3648 214,748.3647
float -1.79E + 308 1.79E + 308
real -3.40E + 38 3.40E + 38
datetime Jan 1, 1753 Dec 31, 9999
smalldatetime Jan 1, 1900 Jun 6, 2079
date Stores a data in the form July 5, 2000
time Stores a time in the form 8:30 P.M.

 

Datatype Description
char Maximum length of 8000 characters (Fixed length)
varchar Maximum of 8000 characters (Variable length)
varchar(max) Max length of 2E+31 characters (Variable length)
text Variable length with a max length of 2,147,483,647
nchar Maximum length of 4000 characters (Fixed length)
nvarchar Maximum of 4000 characters (Variable length)
nvarchar(max) Max length of 2E+31 characters (Variable length)
ntext Max length of 1,073,741,823 characters
binary Maximum length of 8000 bytes (Fixed length)
varbinary Maximum of 8000 bytes (Variable length)
varbinary(max) Max length of 2E+31 bytes (Variable length)
image Max length of 2,147,483,647 bytes (Variable length)

At the same time, the console supports the mathematical/relational equations that help us to determine certain outcomes and workflow.

Operator Use Example Result
Arithmetic
+ Adds the two numbers SELECT 17 + 5; 22
Subtracts the two numbers SELECT 17 – 5; 12
* Multiplies the two numbers SELECT 17 * 5; 85
/ Divides the number two numbers and rounds off to greatest integer of the result SELECT 17 / 5; 3
% Gives the remainder after division SELECT 17 % 5; 2
Bitwise
& Bitwise AND
| Bitwise OR
^ Bitwise XOR
Comparison
= Equal to SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks = 50; Students with marks 50
> Greater than SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks > 33; Students with marks more than 33
< Less than SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks <90; Students with marks less than 90
>= Greater than or equal to SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks >= 67; Students with marks greater than or equal to 67
<= Less than or equal to SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks <= 30; Students with marks less than or equal to 30
<> Not equal to SELECT * FROM Students WHERE Marks = 50; Students with marks 50
Compound
+= Add Equals
-= Subtract Equals
*= Multiply Equals
/= Divide Equals
%= Modulo Equals
&= Bitwise AND Equals
^-= Bitwise Exclusive Equals
|*= Bitwise OR Equals
Logical
ALL TRUE if all subquery value meets the condition
AND TRUE if all statements separated by AND is TRUE
ANY TRUE if any of the subquery value meets the condition
BETWEEN TRUE if the operand is within the range of comparisons
EXISTS TRUE if the subquery returns one or more records
IN TRUE if the operand is equal to one of a list of expressions
LIKE TRUE if the operand matches a pattern
NOT Displays a record if the condition is NOT TRUE
OR TRUE if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE
SOME TRUE if any of the subquery values meet the condition

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